Classical and neo-classical economics, as dominant today, has used
the deductive methodology: Untested axioms and unrealistic assumptions
are the basis for the formulation of theoretical dream worlds that
are used to present particular ‘results’. As discussed in Werner (2005),
this methodology is particularly suited to deriving and justifying
preconceived ideas and conclusions, through a process ofworking backwards
fromthe desired ‘conclusions’, to establish the kind ofmodel that
can deliver them, and then formulating the kind of framework that
could justify this model by choosing suitable assumptions and ‘axioms’.
In other words, the deductive methodology is uniquely suited for manipulation
by being based on axioms and assumptions that can be picked
at will in order to obtain pre-determined desired outcomes and
justify favoured policy recommendations. It can be said that the deductive
methodology is useful for producing arguments thatmay give a scientific
appearance, but are merely presenting a pre-determined opinion.